Weight-lifting is a signature sport of Bulgaria. [285][286] Internet penetration stood at 66.8% of the population aged 16–74 and 75.1% of households, in 2019. [266][267] The information and communication technologies (ICT) sector generates three per cent of economic output and employs 40,000[268] to 51,000 software engineers. [309] The resulting birth rates are among the lowest in the world[313][314] while death rates are among the highest. Bulgaria reached it's peak population size in 1985 at 8.98 million inhabitants, but then the number decreases each year, and is expected to be 6.94 …

[63] The Ottomans completed their conquest of Bulgarian lands in 1393 when Tarnovo was sacked after a three-month siege and the Battle of Nicopolis which brought about the fall of the Vidin Tsardom in 1396. [63] It restored national consciousness and provided an ideological basis for the liberation struggle, resulting in the 1876 April Uprising. The mountainous southwest has two distinct alpine type ranges - Rila and Pirin, which border the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains to the east, and various medium altitude mountains to west, northwest and south, like Vitosha, Osogovo and Belasitsa. [112] In addition, it has a tripartite economic and diplomatic collaboration with Romania and Greece,[182] good ties with China[183] and Vietnam[184] and a historical relationship with Russia. Partridges number some 328,000 individuals, making them the most widespread gamebird. [171] The bulk of criminal cases are transport-related, followed by theft and drug-related crime; homicide rates are low. [230][231] Along with organized crime, corruption has resulted in a rejection of the country's Schengen Area application and withdrawal of foreign investment. [92][93][94] But it was not until 1946 that a one-party people's republic was instituted following a referendum. [78] The other Great Powers immediately rejected the treaty out of fear that such a large country in the Balkans might threaten their interests. "Fighters, infantry fighting vehicles, "SS-21 Scarab: Russia's Forgotten (But Deadly) Ballistic Missile", "One out of six employees in the EU27 was a low-wage earner in 2010", "These are the 29 countries with the world's lowest levels of tax", "General government gross debt – annual data", "Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant), by NUTS 2 regions", "EU: Countries to Begin Counting Drugs, Prostitution in Economic Growth", "Bulgaria: Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate)", "Inter-company debt – one of Bulgarian economy's serious problems", "ITUC Frontlines Report 2012: Section on Bulgaria", "Bulgaria, Romania Rapped for Public Procurement Fraud", "Corruption Perceptions Index: Transparency International", "Cloud of corruption hangs over Bulgaria as it takes up EU presidency", "Bulgarian border officers suspended over airport security lapse", "Bulgaria savors EU embrace despite critics", "Bulgaria's government faces no-confidence vote over corruption", "The Bulgarian Public Procurement Market: Corruption Risks and Dynamics in the Construction Sector", "Field listing: Labor force by occupation", "Mining Industry Accounts for 5% of Bulgaria's GDP – Energy Minister", "Bulgaria's ore exports rise 10% in H1 2011 – industry group", "Total Primary Coal Production (Thousand Short Tons)", "Trade In Goods of Bulgaria With Third Countries In the Period January - October 2019 (Preliminary Data)", "Agricultural Policies in non-OECD countries: Monitoring and Evaluation", "Bulgaria – Natural conditions, farming traditions and agricultural structures", "Bulgaria – Economic Summary, UNData, United Nations", "Experts: Bumper Year for Wheat Producers in Dobrich Region", "Bulgarian rose oil keeps its top place on world market", "Bulgaria is Again the World's First Producer of Lavender Oil", "Bulgaria tops lavender oil production, outpacing France", "EU Presidency Puts Lagging Bulgarian Science in the Spotlight", "R&D Spending in Bulgaria Up in 2015, Mostly Driven by Businesses". There were 2,180,000 men and 1,976,000 women of working age. The conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church[49] and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet, developed in the capital, Preslav.

[73] They convened the Constantinople Conference in 1876, but their decisions were rejected by the Ottomans. [80], The Bulgarian principality won a war against Serbia and incorporated the semi-autonomous Ottoman territory of Eastern Rumelia in 1885, proclaiming itself an independent state on 5 October 1908. [315], High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system. [122] [105] The first free elections in June 1990 were won by the Communist Party, now rebranded as the Bulgarian Socialist Party. [24] International military relations were further expanded with accession to NATO in March 2004[111] and the US-Bulgarian Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in April 2006. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; Bulgaria ranked as the most corrupt country in the European Union in 2018. Zhivkov resigned and Bulgaria embarked on a transition to a parliamentary democracy. [382], Football is the most popular sport in the country by a substantial margin. [198], Bulgaria has an open, upper middle income range market economy where the private sector accounts for more than 70% of GDP. The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multiparty elections.