[2], The Greeks began the formal study of climate; in fact the word climate is derived from the Greek word klima, meaning "slope," referring to the slope or inclination of the Earth's axis. On this BSc Meteorology and Climate course you will tackle the biggest issues facing the planet today, including ozone depletion and climate change, alongside world experts in the UK’s only dedicated meteorology department. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. Arguably the most influential classic text on climate was On Airs, Water and Places[3] written by Hippocrates around 400 BCE.
", National Centers for Environmental Prediction. In the early 20th century, climatology was mostly focused on the description of regional climates. ", "How Climatology Is Different From Meteorology", "ENSO FAQ: How often do El Niño and La Niña typically occur?

Different climate classifications have been developed over the centuries, with the first ones in Ancient Greece. As cities are generally warmer than the surrounding areas, urbanization has made it necessary to constantly correct data for this urban heat island effect.[14]. Climate change (category). Distribution of radiant energy from the Sun, Diurnal, seasonal, and extreme temperatures, Circulation, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interaction, Relation between temperature and humidity, Relationship of wind to pressure and governing forces, Conditions associated with cyclone formation, Effects of tropical cyclones on ocean waters, Influence on atmospheric circulation and rainfall, El Niño/Southern Oscillation and climatic change, The role of the biosphere in the Earth-atmosphere system, The cycling of biogenic atmospheric gases, Biosphere controls on the structure of the atmosphere, Biosphere controls on the planetary boundary layer, Biosphere controls on maximum temperatures by evaporation and transpiration, Biosphere controls on minimum temperatures, Climate and changes in the albedo of the surface, The effect of vegetation patchiness on mesoscale climates, Biosphere controls on surface friction and localized winds, Biosphere impacts on precipitation processes, https://www.britannica.com/science/climate-meteorology, UCAR Center for Science Education - Climate. [17] The atmosphere interacts with other spheres of the climate system, with winds generating ocean currents that transport heat around the globe. Other Forecasting Methods: climatology, analogue and numerical weather prediction. [13] As measuring technology changes over time, records of data cannot be compared directly. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. Francis Galton (1822–1911) invented the term anticyclone. climate - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), climate - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). This length of time can be as short as a few decades to as long as millions of years. Paleoclimatology seeks to reconstruct and understand past climates by examining records such as ice cores and tree rings (dendroclimatology). Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. Boundary-layer climatology is preoccupied with exchanges in water, energy and momentum near the surface. The study of contemporary climates incorporates meteorological data accumulated over many years, such as records of rainfall, temperature and atmospheric composition. There are different categorizations of the fields in climatology. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling. Phenomena of climatological interest include the atmospheric boundary layer, circulation patterns, heat transfer (radiative, convective and latent), interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans and land surface (particularly vegetation, land use and topography), and the chemical and physical composition of the atmosphere. Climate research is made difficult by the large scale, long time periods, and complex processes which govern climate. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [7], Around the middle of the 20th century, many assumptions in meteorology and climatology considered climate to be roughly constant. Climate is therefore time-dependent, and climatic values or indexes should not be quoted without specifying what years they refer to. These elements are solar radiation, temperature, humidity, precipitation (type, frequency, and amount), atmospheric pressure, and wind (speed and direction). [3] Early climate researchers include Edmund Halley, who published a map of the trade winds in 1686 after a voyage to the southern hemisphere. 2455 Hayward Street Climate is governed by physical laws which can be expressed as differential equations. Omissions? In contrast to meteorology, which focuses on short term weather systems lasting up to a few weeks, climatology studies the frequency and trends of those systems.

The collection of long record of climate variables is essential for the study of climate.

Climate, conditions of the atmosphere at a particular location over a long period of time; it is the long-term summation of the atmospheric elements (and their variations) that, over short time periods, constitute weather.