By 1921, this rose to 110,000,[15] largely through the development of shanty towns. [124][125][126], Coordinates: 33°32′N 7°35′W / 33.533°N 7.583°W / 33.533; -7.583, This article is about the city. View looking forward from battleship Massachusetts' after deck during lull of battle, off Casablanca, Morocco, 8 Nov 1942, Aerial photograph from a USS Ranger plane showing three badly damaged French warships beached at Casablanca, French Morocco, 11 Nov 1942. In 2018 only 2,500 Moroccan Jews left in Casablanca,[64] while according to the World Jewish Congress only 1,000 Moroccan Jews left in Casablanca. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) and −2.7 °C (27.1 °F), respectively. "[108], The work of the Groupe des Architectes Modernes Marocains (GAMMA) on public housing projects—such as Carrières Centrales in Hay Mohammadi—in a style described as vernacular modernism influenced modernist architecture around the world.[109][110]. The stadium was designed with a capacity of 93,000 spectators, making it one of the highest-capacity stadiums in Africa. The Anfa House in Casablanca, Morocco, Jan 1943. Casablanca is well-served by international flights to Europe, especially French and Spanish airports, and has regular connections to North American, Middle Eastern and sub-Saharan African destinations. On November 10, the Allied troops readied to assault Casablanca. [17], To build the port's breakwater, narrow-gauge track was laid in June 1907 for a small Decauville locomotive to connect the port to a quarry in Roches Noires, passing through the sacred Sidi Belyout graveyard. [104][105] The films Ali Zaoua (2000), Horses of God (2012), and Ghazzia (2017) of Nabil Ayouch—a French director of Moroccan heritage—deal with street crime, terrorism, and social issues in Casablanca, respectively. Driss Chraïbi's novel The Simple Past takes place in Casablanca. "A 'Black Saturday' Shadows the Future Of Hassan's Morocco", "Casablanca on alert after suicide bombings", "Creating a Children's Refuge in Morocco's Worst Slums", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Les bonnes raisons d'investir à Casablanca", "Casablanca, capitale economique du Maroc", "votre partenaire pour investir à Casablanca au Maroc", Royal Air Maroc. [81] Casablanca has a thriving hiphop scene, with artists such as El Grande Toto, Don Big, 7liwa, and Issam Harris. President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill confer with the Combined Chiefs of Staff during the Casablanca Conference at Roosevelt’s Dar es Saada villa in Casablanca, French Morocco, 18 Jan 1943. Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. It began on November 8 and concluded on November 16, 1942. According to the 2019 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.71 million in the urban area and over 4.27 million in the Greater Casablanca. [76] Nass El Ghiwane, led by Larbi Batma, came out of Hay Mohammadi in Casablanca. New York City, Montreal, Paris, Washington D.C., London and Dubai are important primary destinations. On November 7, Vichy forces thwarted an attempted coup d’etat by pro-Allied General Antoine Béthouart against the French command in Morocco. Lava's technical capabilities. J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 1959, Groupe des Architectes Modernes Marocains, List of twin towns and sister cities in Morocco, "HCP : Le Grand Casablanca compte 4.270.750 habitants", "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014", "Museum of History & Holocaust Education: Creating Community Collaboration", "France-Maroc : revue mensuelle illustrée : organe du Comité des foires du Maroc / directeur Alfred de Tarde", ""Laprade et Prost, du Maroc à Génissiat, du sol des villes aux édifices", journal de l'exposition "De la construction au récit" au CAUE 74", "1942: November 8-16: Naval Battle of Casablanca", "Evènements du 7 avril 1947 à Casablanca, un tournant décisif dans la lutte pour la liberté et l'indépendance", "7-8 décembre 1952 : Quand les Casablancais se sont soulevés contre l'assassinat de Ferhat Hached", "4 au 7 janvier 1961 : La Conférence de Casablanca, prélude à la création de l'OUA", "African States of the Casablanca Charter | UIA Yearbook Profile | Union of International Associations", https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/778664/filename/NEW_DIASPORAS._THE_JERUSALEM_WORKSHOP._JUNE_2012.pdf. The incomplete French battleship Jean Bart at Casablanca, French Morocco, 16 Nov 1942, with damage from 16-inch shells and 1,000-pound bombs inflicted by US Navy forces on 8 Nov 1942 during the Operation Torch landings. [60] The agreement to build the head office in Nouaceur was signed in 2009.[61]. The Moroccan Goumiers (French: Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous Moroccan soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.While nominally in the service of the Sultan of Morocco, they served under French officers, including as part of the Free French Forces. Once completed in 2014, it will be used mostly for football matches and will serve as the home of Raja Casablanca, Wydad Casablanca, and the Morocco national football team. [44], Another series of suicide bombings struck the city in early 2007. [88][89] The Casablanca School—a Modernist art movement and collective including artists such as Farid Belkahia, Mohamed Melihi, and Mohammed Chabâa—developed out of the École des Beaux-Arts of Casablanca in the late 1960s. As calls for reform spread through the Arab world in 2011, Moroccans joined in, but concessions by the ruler led to acceptance. Lamalif, a radical leftist political and cultural magazine, was based in Casablanca. Morocco’s largest city and major Atlantic Ocean port is Casablanca. At Oran, the Center Task Force also encountered stubborn French resistance before Oran’s surrender on November 9. Tunis did not fall quickly to British and American forces. The town was called ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ (الدار البيضاء), the Arabic translation of the Portuguese Casa Branca. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca (pronounced [kazablɑ̃ka]). was a propaganda film brandishing France's purported colonial triumph in its mission civilizatrice in the city.[103]. Marcelin Flandrin (1889-1957), a French military photographer, settled in Casablanca and recorded much of the early colonial period in Morocco with his photography. [citation needed] Almost the entire Casablanca waterfront is under development, mainly the construction of huge entertainment centres between the port and Hassan II Mosque, the Anfa Resort project near the business, entertainment and living centre of Megarama, the shopping and entertainment complex of Morocco Mall, as well as a complete renovation of the coastal walkway. [74] Raja's symbol is an eagle and Wydad's symbol is a star and crescent which means a symbol of Islam. French colonists in Morocco generally supported Pétain, while politically conscious Moroccans tended to favor de Gaulle and the Allies. C. Peter Chen of Lava Development, LLC. Casablanca is home to two popular football clubs: Wydad Casablanca[72] and Raja Casablanca[73]—which are rivals. The World War II Database is founded and managed by [68], Public: University of Hassan II Casablanca, Most of the city's places of worship are Muslim mosques. TTY: 202.488.0406, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. The town was finally reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah (1756–1790), the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. [11] The Europeans eventually abandoned the area completely in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town.[12]. The following morning, the Allied assault commenced as three task forces sought to seize key ports and airports at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers before advancing eastwards into Tunisia. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration. US Army Ranger Sergeant Franklin Koons posing for photographers immediately following being presented with Great Britain’s Military Medal by Vice Admiral Louis Mountbatten, Casablanca, French Morocco, 18 Jan 1943, US Army Ranger Sergeant Franklin Koons shaking hands with British Vice Admiral Louis Mountbatten immediately following being presented with Great Britain’s Military Medal at Casablanca, French Morocco, 18 Jan 1943, Henri Giraud and Franklin Roosevelt at Casablanca, French Morocco, 19 Jan 1943. The highest amount of rainfall recorded in a single day is 178 mm (7.0 in) on 30 November 2010. The only watercourse in Casablanca is oued Bouskoura,[52] a small seasonal creek that until 1912 reached the Atlantic Ocean near the actual port. Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. The idea of the stadium was also for the 2026 FIFA World Cup, for which Morocco lost their bid to Canada, Mexico and United States. The goal of this It would have been better if you were all illiterate.”[38][39], On June 6, 1981, the Casablanca Bread Riots took place. Gad Elmaleh is another comedian from Casablanca, though he has made his career abroad. [14] Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in 1906. [49] Apart from the Atlantic coast, the Bouskoura forest is the only natural attraction in the city. April 7, 1947, a massacre of working class Moroccans, carried out by Senegalese Tirailleurs in the service of the French colonial army, was instigated just as Sultan Muhammed V was due to make a speech in Tangier appealing for independence. Upon learning of Darlan’s deal with the Allies, Adolf Hitler ordered the occupation of Vichy France and started building up Axis forces in Tunisia, where they would later clash with British troops. [95] With his staged nude postcard photos taken in Casablanca's colonial brothel quarter, Flandrin was also responsible for disseminating the orientalist image of Moroccan women as sexual objects. Que s'est-il vraiment passé le 23 mars 1965? Casablanca's International Book Fair is held at the fair grounds opposite Hassan II Mosque annually in February. Conversely, the invasion also failed to draw away large numbers of Germans from the Eastern Front, a key strategic rationale given for the operation. Mostly made up of Berber tribesmen, about 12,000 men constituted this group and fought alongside Allied forces in the war. [22] French colonists in Morocco generally supported Pétain, while politically conscious Moroccans tended to favor de Gaulle and the Allies. The closest permanent river to Casablanca is Oum Rabia, 70 km (43.50 mi) to the south-east.