1654. They had seven children; their great-grandson, who died in 1821, was the Protector's last direct male descendant. Lord Falconbridge and possibly Lord Broghill seem to have been the agents employed in this negotiation. He married Susan Weeks (c1550-1592) . Thomas Cromwell became Henry's chief minister (advisor). The 4th of September the Proclamation of Henry Cromwell is issued. On returning to England, he was elected MP for Cambridge University in the First Protectorate Parliament.

Henry Cromwell was the eldest son of Gregory Cromwell, 1st baron Cromwell, only son and heir of Thomas Cromwell, and Elizabeth, widow of Sir Anthony Ughtred (d. 1534), daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall, Wiltshire, and Margery Wentworth. [9] He reported that the army in general, with the exception of the Anabaptists, were well satisfied with the recent change, and recommended that Ludlow, of whose venomous discontent and reproachful utterances he complains, should be replaced as lieutenant-general by John Desborough. However several of the Army Grandees, including Charles Fleetwood and John Disbrowe, and soldiers of the New Model Army were adverse at this choice of a person of no previous military command and lukewarm attitude towards religion.

", "Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII", Extracts from the Will of Henry Lord Cromwell, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_Cromwell,_2nd_Baron_Cromwell&oldid=982798524, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sir Gregory Cromwell, married Frances, daughter of. He was wroth at the slight to his brother, but still more at the aspersions cast on his father's memory, and, above all things, distressed by the prospect of renewed civil war. By the Treaty, Spain recognized English possessions in the Western Indies and Western Hemisphere. Educated at Felsted School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge he served under his father during the latter part of the Civil War. ; Brunt Hall, Great Fakenham, Suff. Lords Presidents of the Commonwealth State Council under Henry Cromwell. In answer to the letter of the English army leaders which announced the fall of his brother's government, he sent an ambiguous reply assuring them of the peaceable disposition of the Irish army, and commissioning three officers to represent their views in England. When his brother Richard succeeded to the office of lord protector in September 1658, Henry became lieutenant and governor-general of Ireland. A more likely choice for many would have been his other son, Henry, proven soldier and politician in the Irish campaign. Afterward, Ireland effectively became an English colony, and, when the Act of Union came into effect in 1801, Ireland was joined with England and Scotland under the name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and….

Under the terms of the Humble Petition and Advice, the written constitution adopted in May 1657, Oliver Cromwell was empowered to name his successor as Lord Protector. [27] His new rank gave him more dignity and more responsibility, but did not increase his power or put an end to his difficulties.

Charles Fleetwood, though a staunch supporter of the protectorate, he regarded as too deeply involved with the Anabaptist party to be safely continued in Ireland, and advised his recall to England after a time, and the appointment of Desborough to act as his deputy.
The English Reformation had begun.

The fourth son and fifth of the nine children of Oliver and Elizabeth Cromwell, Henry was born on 29 January 1628 at Huntingdon. In 1657 he advised his father not to accept the office of king, although in 1654 he had supported a motion to this effect; and after the dissolution of Cromwell's second parliament in February 1658 he showed his anxiety that the protector should act in a moderate and constitutional manner. [40], There is no sign that Cromwell ever sought or desired the succession himself. After 1678 the Commonwealth was involved in a series of diplomatic and military alliances and treaties in order to keep in check or stop France's hegemony in Europe and keep or regain a balance of power.

He was deeply critical of the republican Edmund Ludlow and recommended his dismissal. [35], On the question of the acceptance of the crown offered to his father in 1657 his own views were almost exactly the same as those of the Protector himself. He continued the policy of forcing Irish Roman Catholics to relinquish areas to be colonized by English Protestant soldiers, but he ended the oppression of older English settlers by sectarian military leaders. Cromwell studied at Cambridge University and Gray’s Inn, London. However his republicanism, that is to say the preeminence of the Lord Protector over Parliament, led to troubles with the decisions and workings of the Council so he again became an arbiter between Tories and Whigs in Council. The Principles would provided a legal rationale to the political practices after Civil War and soften or remove the more dictatorial elements of it.

He landed in Ireland in July 1655, and Fleetwood left in September.

By late 1656, Henry had succeeded in forcing leading Baptist officers to resign their commissions or to leave Ireland. During part of the English Civil Wars he served under his father in the Parliamentary army in England and Ireland. His choice of John Lambert as member of the State Council ((September 1658)) and later Lord President of it (November 1658) did not fell good with army Grandees like Fleetwood or John Desborough. The magnificent scenery of Ireland’s Atlantic coastline faces a 2,000-mile- (3,200-km-) wide expanse of ocean, and its geographic isolation has helped it to develop a rich heritage of…, Until the 17th century, political power in Ireland was shared among small earldoms. A minor at his father's premature death from sweating sickness on 4 July 1551,[3][4] he was first summoned to Parliament in 1563. [3][20], sfn error: no target: CITEREFShaw_II1906 (, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry III 2011, "Cromwell, Thomas (by 1485–1540), of London", "Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Elizabeth [I]", "Tollemache (Talmash), Sir Lionel, 2nd Bt. Therefore, at the start of Cromwell’s tenure as chief minister, the relationship between him and Henry must be seen as being positive and constructive. He married Joan Warren (c1540-1584) . Although the idea of changing the succession was alarming similar to making a coup against Oliver Cromwell. [12], Cromwell married, before 1560, Mary (c. 1540 – 10 October 1592),[3] the daughter of his stepfather John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester and his first wife Elizabeth Willoughby,[3] and by her had issue:[3], Cromwell's wife died at North Elmham, Norfolk, 10 October 1592, and was buried, on 23 October, at Launde Abbey Leicestershire. He was anxious to come over to England, not only for the benefit of his own health, but (after he had agreed to continue in the government of Ireland) in order to confer with Richard and his friends in England on the principles of Irish policy, and on the prospects and plans of the new government in England.

His adversaries were powerful in England, and continually at the ear of the Protector; but Oliver, though chary of praise, and not giving his son all the public support he expected, approved of his conduct in this matter.

[4], Henry's grandfather, Thomas Cromwell, had been created Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon in 1536 and Earl of Essex in 1540 as a reward for his service as chief minister to Henry VIII, but he had lost those titles by attainder in June 1540.

He was born at Huntingdon and educated at Felsted School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. [56] Accordingly, the lands of Cromwell in Meuth and Connaught were confirmed to his trustees by a special proviso of the Act of Settlement;[57] but his family seems to have lost them in the next generation. 1655 – 1657, Lord Deputy of Ireland (1657-1658) / Lord Lieutenant 1658–1658) Henry's principal objective in Ireland was to secure the authority of the Protectorate and to crush all disloyalty. His earliest letters show him zealously engaged in shipping young women and boys to populate Jamaica. [3], His mother remarried, in 1554, Sir John Paulet, later Lord St John. [28] His popularity was shown by a vote of parliament on 8 June 1657, settling upon him lands to the value of £1,500 a year, which he refused on the ground of the poverty of Ireland and the indebtedness of England. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [5] On 18 December 1540, his son Gregory was created 1st Baron Cromwell. His active life, however, was mainly spent in Ireland, whither he took some troops to assist Oliver early in 1650, and he was one of the Irish representative; in the Little, or Nominated, Parliament of 1653. [50] Before receiving this letter parliament (the restored Rump) on 7 June had ordered him to deliver up the government of Ireland and return to England. Instead of conducting the government in the interests of the soldiery, and in accordance with their views, he consulted the interests of the old settlers, the ancient Protestant inhabitants of Ireland, and was repaid by their confidence and admiration.

He opposed the Baptists among the soldiers and civilian administrators because of their close association with republicans. The policy of Cromwell towards the native Irish was very little milder than that of his predecessor. Oliver Cromwell dies at four o'clock in the afternoon of the 3rd of September of 1658 and despite the presence of the Councillors as witnesses there is no key to the name of the successor. Henry gave Cromwell a number of posts between 1532 and 1533 and by the end of the year it was assumed that Cromwell was the king’s chief minister.
[3][20], sfn error: no target: CITEREFShaw_II1906 (, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry III 2011, "Cromwell, Thomas (by 1485–1540), of London", "Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: Elizabeth [I]", "Tollemache (Talmash), Sir Lionel, 2nd Bt. and Charing Cross, Westminster", "Ughtred, Henry (by 1534-aft. In July 1670 after years of negotiations under the direction of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich Sir William Godolphin signed the Treaty of Madrid. Spain also agreed to permit English ships freedom of movement in the Caribbean. During part of the English Civil Wars he served under his father in the Parliamentary army in England and Ireland. Despite Whig reforms designed to curtail his powers he managed to foil the most significant ones. [5], In February 1650 Cromwell had attained the rank of colonel, and followed his father to Ireland with reinforcements.