Following the First World War, the province was ceded to Greece, but was retaken by the forces of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the Turkish War of Independence. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Greek city was founded by Aeolians but soon was seized by Ionians. Beylik of Aydin 1405–1425 Izmir's port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey. It has five garages at Karataş, Gümrük, Basmane, Yeşilyurt, and Konak. [89], İzmir has a metro network that is constantly being extended with new stations being put in service. These include the lynching of the Orthodox Metropolitan Chrysostomos following the recapture of the city on 9 September 1922 and the slaughter of Armenian and Greek males, who were then sent to the so-called labour battalions. During summer, the air temperature can climb as high as 40 °C (104 °F) from June to September; however, the high temperatures are usually between 30 and 36 °C (86 and 97 °F). Karşıyaka's basketball department Karşıyaka Basket won the Turkish Basketball League twice (in the 1986–87 and 2014–15 seasons), the Turkish Cup once (in the 2013–14 season) and the Presidential Cup twice (in 1987 and 2014). identity number[75] (Turkish ID number) can receive medical treatment free of charge in public hospitals. Greece 1919–1922. [40][41] Moreover, according to various scholars, prior to the war, the city hosted more Greeks than Athens, the capital of Greece. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Level 2 bears traces of early to mid-Chalcolithic, and Level 3 of Neolithic settlements. However, the sultan refused to make this concession, despite the resulting tensions between the two camps, and he gave the Hospitallers permission to build a castle (the present-day Bodrum Castle) in Petronium (Bodrum) instead. The İzmir European Jazz Festival is among the numerous events organized every year by the İKSEV (İzmir Foundation for Culture, Arts and Education) since 1994. Exports include agricultural products from its hinterland—chiefly tobacco, figs, cotton, and vegetables—as well as manufactures, carpets, and silk. According to Herodotus the city was founded by Aeolians and later seized by Ionians. The modern name İzmir is the Turkish rendering of the original Greek name Smyrna and "Smyrne" (Σμύρνη), since the city was founded by Greeks. İzmir , often spelled Izmir in English, is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia. A 130 km (81 mi) İzmir-Aydın railway was started in 1856 and finished in 1867, a year later than the Smyrna-Cassaba Railway, itself started in 1863. Given the importance of the city, Roman emperors who came to Anatolia also visited Smyrna. [66][67][68][circular reference], ▪Ege TV |Local TV ▪Kanal 35 |Local TV ▪Sky TV | Local TV ▪Kordon TV | Local TV ▪FRM TV | Online TV ▪Ege Üniversitesi TV |Local TV ▪Ben TV | Online TV [2]▪Yenigün TV | Online TV ▪TRT Belgesel | National TV, ▪Radyo İzmir ▪Romantik Radyo ▪Romantik Türk ▪Radyo 35 ▪Kordon FM ▪İmbat FM ▪Radyo Kordelya ▪Radyo Efe ▪Oynak FM ▪Duygusal FM ▪Sky Radyo ▪Radyo Pause ▪Radyo Ege ▪Ege FM ▪Ege'nin Sesi Radyosu ▪Herkül FM ▪Can Radyo ▪Batı Radyo ▪Radyo Gökkuşağı ▪Yıldız FM ▪Buca FM ▪Radyo Ege Kampüs 100.8 ▪Rock City FM ▪öRT FM ▪Y.Tire FM ▪DEÜ FM[69], ▪Ege Telgraf [3]▪Ekonomik Çözüm ▪Gözlem ▪Haber Ekspres ▪Ticaret ▪Yenigün ▪Yeni Asır ▪Yeni Ekonomi ▪Yenigün Gazetesi ▪9 Eylül Gazetesi ▪Küçük Menderes Gazetesi ▪Büyük Tire ▪Ege Gazetesi[70]▪Torbalı Ege ▪Büyük Torbalı▪ Haber Ekspres[71], Air pollution in Turkey is a problem in the city in part due to vehicle exhaust: and a 2020 study of coal-fired residential heating estimated the cost of replacing it versus the reduction in illness and premature death. There is considerable culinary usage of green leaf vegetables and wild plants amongst the residents, especially those with insular heritage, such as the immigrants from Crete. Some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor. To facilitate easier access, a Halkapınar—Otogar metro line has long been deliberated but construction has never begun – though throughout his campaign and upon his election as mayor of İzmir in 2019, Tunç Soyer has outlined it as one of his priorities.[88]. İzmir Metropolitan Municipality (İBB) Sports Club's ice hockey team began playing in the Turkish Ice Hockey Super League during the 2011–2012 season. One of the most prominent present-day figures of the community is Caroline Giraud Koç, wife of the renowned Turkish industrialist Mustafa Koç, whose company, Koç Holding, is one of the largest family-owned industrial conglomerates in the world. The Greek settlement in Old Smyrna is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC onwards. Several important international sports events have been held in İzmir: The 51,295 capacity (all-seater) İzmir Atatürk Stadium regularly hosts, apart from Turkish Super League games of İzmir-based teams, many other Super League and Turkish Cup derby matches. "The greater Izmir region produces 20% of Turkey’s wind power from wind turbines capable of generating more than 1,300 megawatts (MW). South of the commercial centre lies Kadifekale (Mount Pagus), on which the old citadel of İzmir was built. [citation needed] The oldest model of a multiple-roomed house of this period was found in Old Smyrna. The houses all faced south. The festival aims to bring together masters and lovers of jazz with the aim to generate feelings of love, friendship and peace. Byzantine Empire 1097–1204 Second only to the Istanbul region in industry, it produces foods, cement, cotton and woolen textiles and has petrochemical and engineering works. To the east and the north-east, urban development ends near the natural barriers constituted respectively by the Belkahve (Mount Nif) and Sabuncubeli (Mount Yamanlar-Mount Sipylus) passes. The acronym stands for "E elektrik (electricity); S su (water); H havagazı (gas); O otobüs (bus) and T troleybüs (trolleybus)." There were five urban wards, one of these situated in the immediate vicinity of the port, rather active despite the town's small size and where the non-Muslim population was concentrated. The beginning of the 20th century saw İzmir take on the look of a global metropolis with a cosmopolitan city center. [7][8] In 2013, the passing of Act 6360 established all thirty of İzmir Province's districts as part of İzmir's metropolitan area.[9]. Umur Bey, the son of the founder of the Beylik of Aydın, took first the upper fort of Mount Pagos (thereafter called Kadifekale), and then the lower port castle of Neon Kastron (called St. Peter by the Genoese and as "Ok Kalesi" by the Turks). [56] The community is still concentrated in their traditional quarter of Karataş. By the end of the 17th century, the population was estimated at around ninety thousand, the Turks forming the majority (about 60,000); there were also 15,000 Greeks, 8,000 Armenians and 6,000 to 7,000 Jews, as well as a considerable section made up of French, English, Dutch and Italian merchants. The sanctuary, which covers 80 square kilometres, was registered as "the protected area for water birds and for their breeding" by the Turkish Ministry of Forestry in 1982. İzmir has traditionally been a stronghold for the CHP, the centre-left Kemalist political party which forms the main opposition in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. At the dawn of İzmir's recorded history, Pausanias describes "evident tokens" such as "a port called after the name of Tantalus and a sepulchre of him by no means obscure", corresponding to the city's area and which have been tentatively located to date. The city thus came under Roman rule as a civil diocese within the Province of Asia and enjoyed a new period of prosperity. The systematic evacuation of Greeks on the quay started on 24 September when the first Greek ships entered the harbor under the supervision of Allied destroyers. Historically, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the city was an educational center of the Greek world, with a total of 67 male and 4 female schools. Therefore, the slopes of Mount Pagos (Kadifekale) was chosen for the foundation of the new city, for which Alexander is credited, and this act laid the ground for a resurgence in the city's population. It is the busiest commuter railway in Turkey, serving about 150,000 passengers daily. When the Ottomans took over İzmir in the 15th century, they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key points of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. About a thousand people lived inside the city walls, with others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees, vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located. The war, and especially the events that took place in İzmir, such as the fire, probably the greatest disaster the city has ever experienced, continue to influence the psyches of the two nations to this day. Chaka Bey 1081–1097 The festival is a member of the European Festivals Association since 2003. İzmir has an electronic, integrated pre-pay ticket known as the İzmirim Kart ('My Izmir' Card). The İzmirim Kart allows for the use of multiple forms of transport within a 90-minute window, combining for a single fare price. After the Roman Empire was divided into two distinct entities, Smyrna became a territory of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 1530, 304 adult males, both tax-paying and tax-exempt were on record, 42 of them Christians. The fair and the festival are held in the compound of İzmir's vast inner city park named Kültürpark in the first days of September, and organized by İZFAŞ, a depending company of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality.