If one soldier ran from danger in battle, then he and his nine comrades from the same arban would face the death penalty together. The drums would beat and the signal flags wave, telling the lancers to begin their charge. If the armor withstood their arrows, the Mongols killed the knights' horses, leaving a heavily armored man on foot and isolated. The leather was first softened by boiling and then coated in a crude lacquer made from pitch, which rendered it waterproof. Whenever possible, Mongol commanders fou… Additionally, Mongol battlefield communication utilized signal flags and horns and to a lesser extent, signal arrows to communicate movement orders during combat. Mongols in battle of Mohi split into more than three separate formations and one formation under Subutai flanking the opponent from the right. Helmet and costume of the Mongol Yuan warrior during the Mongol invasion of Japan. The structure of their army was designed to offer a chain of command and a structure that worked for the vast size of their army. Mongol warriors would time the loosing of an arrow to the moment when a galloping horse would have all four feet off the ground, thus ensuring a steady, well-aimed shot. The coat was lined with fur. As Mongols started conquering other people, they recruited the male nomads to their armies if they only surrendered, particularly the Turks, Armenians, Georgians and others, willingly or under a threat to be destroyed otherwise. The engineers building the machines were recruited among captives, mostly from China and Persia. A general such as Subutai, unable to ride a horse in the later part of his career due to age and obesity, would have been ridiculed out of most any European army of the time. The Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongolian: Монгол улсын зэвсэгт хүчин, Mongol ulsyn zevsegt hüchin) is the collective name for the Mongolian military and the joint forces that comprise it. This training was maintained by a hard, but not overly harsh or unreasonable, discipline. Joining the Kheshig was thought to be one of the highest honours to any Mongol warrior, and would often lead to greater things.

Defined as the peacetime configuration, its current structure consists of two branches: ground forces and air force. In addition, keeping the high command on high ground made them easier to defend. Targeted shots were possible at a range of 200 or 230 metres (660 or 750 ft), which determined the optimal tactical approach distance for light cavalry units. In many cases, they won against significantly larger opponent armies. Some tactics involved diverting rivers from the city/town[citation needed], closing supplies to the city and waiting for its inhabitants to surrender, gathering civilians from the nearby areas to fill the front line for the city/town attack before scaling the wall, and pillaging the surrounding area and killing some of the people, then letting some survivors flee to the main city to report their losses to the main populace to weaken resistance, simultaneously draining the resources of the city with the sudden influx of refugees. The right arm is semi-naked because of the hot weather. The Mongol bow could shoot an arrow over 500 metres (1,600 ft). The main reason for these manoeuvers was to encircle the city to cut off escape and overwhelm from both sides. Drawing of a mobile Mongol soldier with bow and arrow wearing deel. The Mongol battlefield tactics were a combination of masterful training with excellent communication and discipline in the chaos of combat. They trained for virtually every possibility, so when it occurred, they could react accordingly. Ballistic shots could hit enemy units (without targeting individual soldiers) at distances of up to 400 metres (1,300 ft), useful for surprising and scaring troops and horses before beginning the actual attack. Mongol soldiers using bow, in Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din, 1305–1306. Often, the devastation of the arrows was enough to rout an enemy, so the lancers were only needed to help pursue and mop up the remnants. They knew that sedentary populations were not free to flee danger as were nomad populations, and that the destruction of their cities was the worst loss a sedentary population could experience.