S9, Supplementary Material online). 2011), including a peak at the size of about 300 bp, potentially caused by abundance of Alu elements (supplementary fig. Americas. vglnk.api_url :
"Genetic features of We analyzed seven Y chromosome binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y 711, M9, M175, LINE1, SRY +465 and 47z) in samples from a total of 254 males from Koreans and two Mongolian ethnic groups (Buryat and Khalkh) to study the genetic relationship among these populations. In the final analysis, we set the assumed ancestral populations from K = 2 to 20. The Y-DNA haplogroups of the Khalkh, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin peoples of Mongolia have affinities with each other as well as peoples of Siberia.

var r = d.getElementsByTagName(t)[0]; r.parentNode.insertBefore(s, r); DNA Analysis of Mongolian Populations and Implications for the Origin of [29] Also, data are not reconcilable with the concept of a treelike evolution[37] nor with the concept of "biologically discrete, isolated, or static" populations. 14%, D in 20%, other haplogroup(s) in 52%. After excluding missing sites and sites with low quality from the chip genotyping data, the genotype concordance rate between the SNP call set and the chip genotyping set (both position and two alleles) reached 98.48% in a total of 2,356,566 sites. J. Hum. Genet. Some of the undersigned are inclined to replace the term Mongolism by such designations as 'Langdon Down Anomaly', or 'Down's Syndrome or Anomaly', or 'Congenital Acromicria'.

(1881). [30]:6, Alfred L. Kroeber (1948), Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, referring to the racial classification of mankind on the basis of physical features, said that there are basically "three grand divisions."

All four New World haplogroups have been detected in Mongolian, central S11, Supplementary Material online). Out of 34 SNPs tested, both alleles of 31 SNPs (all 12 homozygous and 19 heterozygous) were verified completely. A total of 1.39 billion reads (139.20 Gb) were obtained and the proportion of high quality data (Q20) reached as high as 93.8% (supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). World founding populations, we studied two Mongolian indigenous These are further divided into sub-tribes with names like Kereit, Next, read pairs derived from long insert-size libraries (>1 kb) were aligned to the contig sequences, and the paired information was used to construct the scaffolds. "Phylogeographic Published online on April 11, 2019. 3B and supplementary fig. It was also supported by the intramural program of NHGRI (1ZIAHG000024), the National Institute of Health (NIH) to N.N. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of sample donor. [18], In his Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines (Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, published 1853–55), which would later influence Adolf Hitler, the French aristocrat Arthur de Gobineau defined three races which he called "white", "black", and "yellow". 2002) through recent adaptation to characteristic environments. For small scaffolds (<40 kb), only one effective sequence was randomly selected as the seed sequence.

S7, Supplementary Material online). Matrilineal Contributions to Genetic Structure of Ethnic Groups in the [45], In 2004, British anthropologist Caroline Wilkinson gave a description of "Mongoloid" skulls in her book on forensic facial reconstruction: "The Mongoloid skull shows a round head shape with a medium-width nasal aperture, rounded orbital margins, massive cheekbones, weak or absent canine fossae, moderate prognathism, absent brow ridges, simple cranial sutures, prominent zygomatic bones, broad, flat, tented nasal root, short nasal spine, shovel-shaped upper incisor teeth (scooped out behind), straight nasal profile, moderately wide palate shape, arched sagittal contour, wide facial breadth and a flatter face.

First, we extracted seed sequences (20 kb, without N) from each scaffold. The result that Maya shares more haplotypes with East Asian groups (Mongolian and Han) than the groups of other regions (Europe, South Asia, and Middle East) supports the close relationship between Native Americans and the Asians. 2008), we used a confirmed set of 537 markers to trace the patrilineal transmission of the Mongolian individual (supplementary table S15, Supplementary Material online). Central Asians than their fellow Mongolians.

2013). The term was motivated by the observation that people with Down syndrome often have epicanthic folds.

Parker, Dr Lawrence Brody, and Dr Kevin Stuart for helpful advice, comments, and editing. Subsequently, we aligned these unmapped reads again onto the Mongolian assembled draft by using rigorous parameters. electronically on February 19, 2006. Although Blumenbach's concept of five races later gave rise to scientific racism, his arguments were basically anti-racist,[8] since he underlined that mankind as a whole forms one single species,[9] and points out that the transition from one race to another is so gradual that the distinctions between the races presented by him are "very arbitrary". We did not find homozygous disease-related SNPs in the genome, especially ones that fit a recessive Mendelian disease model.

[39], In 1885, the California State Legislature amended its code to make separate schools for "children of Mongoloid or Chinese descent. †These authors contributed equally to this work. The genome assembly is one of the few reference genomes sequenced to high depth representing a specific ethnic group to our knowledge. 1 to O2*

& Lenski R. Based on the alignment of selected short reads, each of SOAPsnp (Wang et al.

The evaluation of the assembled genome shows that the distribution of GC content is comparable to the other two genomes. Haplogroup DE‐YAP was present at … The size of each gene was required to be at least 150 bp. The rise of the Mongolian Empire and conquests of the Eurasia continent (from the 13th to 19th centuries) (Twitchett and Fairbank 1994; Weatherford 2005) under Genghis Khan and his successors have played a major role in the last 1,000 years of human evolution. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. However, the recent large scale historical activities of the ethnic group present many challenges. A majority of SNPs and short indels were located in the intergenic regions (60.58% of SNPs, 58.25% of indels) and introns (34.36% of SNPs, 36.85% of indels). ", "Phylogeographic

The Mongolian genome is marked by a red star. "Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking". In total, 51 (Exon, 26; Intron, 8; Intergenic, 17) of 54 short indels were validated completely (supplementary table S9, Supplementary Material online). We assume that two populations have greater degree of gene flows in evolutionary history when they share more haplotype block compared with another two (Pearson χ2 test, P = 0.05). genetic exchange. in parts of Russia. Haihua Bai, Xiaosen Guo, Dong Zhang, Narisu Narisu, Junjie Bu, Jirimutu Jirimutu, Fan Liang, Xiang Zhao, Yanping Xing, Dingzhu Wang, Tongda Li, Yanru Zhang, Baozhu Guan, Xukui Yang, Zili Yang, Shuangshan Shuangshan, Zhe Su, Huiguang Wu, Wenjing Li, Ming Chen, Shilin Zhu, Bayinnamula Bayinnamula, Yuqi Chang, Ying Gao, Tianming Lan, Suyalatu Suyalatu, Hui Huang, Yan Su, Yujie Chen, Wenqi Li, Xu Yang, Qiang Feng, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Jun Wang, Qizhu Wu, Ye Yin, Huanmin Zhou, The Genome of a Mongolian Individual Reveals the Genetic Imprints of Mongolians on Modern Human Populations, Genome Biology and Evolution, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 3122–3136, https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evu242. Forensic Human Hair Examination Guidelines. 988 men from 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan were From a different point of view, 17 of 18 exonic SNPs were confirmed in the experimental validation.