Louis-Napoléon lived within the borders of the United Kingdom until the revolution of February 1848 in France deposed Louis-Philippe and established a Republic. Few workers were prepared to risk a repetition of the bloodbath of June 1848 to defend the rights of a conservative assembly against a president who presented himself as the defender of popular sovereignty and enjoyed the prestige that went with the name Bonaparte. [65] Napoleon III backed the greatest maritime project of the age, the construction of the Suez Canal between 1859 and 1869. He went back to his studies at the British Museum. The Emperor was weak and ill, but the more extreme Bonapartists were prepared to show their strength against the republicans and monarchists in the parliament.[146]. In 1848, he was elected President of France in a land slide victory. Catholicism flourished despite the growing differences between Liberal Catholics and the ultramontanists (see ultramontanism). [76] In Europe, he allied himself with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War (1854–56). Napoleon continued to write political tracts and letters and dreamed of a return to power.

Januar 1852 gab dem Volk das Recht des Plebiszits in besonderen Fällen, der Volksvertretung (Senat und Gesetzgebendem Körper) nur das der Beratung, dem Staatsoberhaupt eine sonst unumschränkte Gewalt. [86], The defeat of Russia and the alliance with Britain gave France increased authority and prestige in Europe. Einerseits schmiedete er unaufhörlich Pläne, um durch territoriale Erwerbungen die Nation zu befriedigen. They were greeted by huge, jubilant crowds waving Italian and French flags. [69] Hundreds of kilometers of pipes distributed the water throughout the city, and a second network, using the less-clean water from the Ourcq and the Seine, washed the streets and watered the new park and gardens.

Napoleon had limited funds; he sold properties and jewels and arrived in England on 20 March 1871. In 1851, France had only 3,500 kilometers of railway, compared with 10,000 kilometers in England and 800 kilometers in Belgium, a country one-twentieth the size of France.

The previous government had sent an expeditionary force to Rome to help restore the temporal authority of Pope Pius IX, who was being threatened by the troops of the Italian republicans Mazzini and Garibaldi. One such project in the Gironde department drained and reforested 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 square miles) of moorland, creating the Landes forest, the largest maritime pine forest in Europe.