There is only one fundamental right (all the others are its consequences or corollaries): a man’s right to his own life. Concepts of Consciousness as Involving Measurement-Omission /Contents 4 0 R In her words, the essential characteristics of a civilized society are that “men deal with one another, not as victims and executioners, nor as masters and slaves, but as traders, by free, voluntary exchange to mutual benefit”; and that “no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force, and no man may initiate the use of physical force against others.”13. Happiness as the Normal Condition of Man Objectivism and Nietzsche Ayn Rand did not align herself with Nietzsche Nietzsche and Rand did both reject altruism and advocate living for the individual The major difference between the two is that Nietzsche advocated sacrificing others to yourself by following your instincts (think Machiavelli) Rand states everything must be based on But, to my knowledge, none of them presents her ideas accurately. That, of course, will not fly with religionists, subjectivists, psychics, or others who claim to acquire knowledge through non-sensory, non-rational means. He is the author of Loving Life: The Morality of Self-Interest and the Facts that Support It; Rational Egoism: The Morality for Human Flourishing; and the forthcoming Moral Truths Your Parents, Preachers, and Teachers Don’t Want You to Know. Ayn Rand provides a nutshell version of Objectivism by describing four aspects of it: The Senses as Necessarily Valid The Initiation of Physical Force as Evil, 9. 10 See Rand, “The Nature of the Second-Hander,” in For the New Intellectual, 68–71; see also Ayn Rand, Journals of Ayn Rand, edited by David Harriman (New York: Dutton, 1997), esp. People who want to organize society in a way that ignores or denies personal responsibility will not accept a philosophy that upholds the very principle that gives rise to and necessitates personal responsibility. She elaborates: A “right” is a moral principle defining and sanctioning a man’s freedom of action in a social context. /Filter /FlateDecode endobj (A snake can slither; it cannot speak. Think about it: If people are free to think or not to think, then whatever powers an alleged God is said to possess, he can’t know in advance which alternative people are going to choose. Esthetic Value as Objective In principle, Kant says, the actual object—the object as it really is—“remains unknown to us.”4, Indeed, says Kant, it is an error even to regard “external objects” as “things-in-themselves, which exist independently of us and of our sensibility, and which are therefore outside us.” The truth, he says, is that “external objects” are “mere appearances” or “species of [internal] representations,” and the things we perceive “are something only through these representations. Objectivism is the philosophy of 20th century philosopher and best-selling novelist Ayn Rand. “The sights and sounds and pulsings that you experience” are consequences of processed data—data that has been “structured, edited, or amplified by the nervous system.” Thus, “The world that you see and hear is nothing more than a modification of your consciousness.”3, This fashionable view is rooted in the ideas of Immanuel Kant, who wrote: “What objects may be in themselves, and apart from all this receptivity of our sensibility [i.e., perception], remains completely unknown to us.” Once we understand this, Kant says, we “realise that not only are the drops of rain mere appearances, but that even their round shape, nay even the space in which they fall, are nothing in themselves, but merely modifications” within consciousness.