In 1662, the equally hostile Duc de Crequi was made ambassador. Fabio's elder brother, Mario, married Berenice, the daughter of Tiberio della Ciala, producing four children, of whom two survived: Agnes and Flavio. During his reign occurred the conversion of Queen Christina of Sweden, who, after her abdication, came to reside in Rome, where on Christmas Day, 1655, she was confirmed by the Pope, in whom she found a generous friend and benefactor. He blessed them, having raised himself up twice according to the custom, without the help of the pontifical seat; and this was the lat time that he saw his flock, or they him. Indeed, in the first year of his reign, Alexander VII lived simply and forbade his relations even to visit Rome. The conversion of Queen Christina of Sweden (1632–1654) occurred during Alexander VII's reign. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). Before being elected as Pontiff, Chigi served as Inquisitor on the Island of Malta where he resided mostly at the Inquisitor's Palace in Birgu (alias Città Vittoriosa). The same added that he should hope in the mercies of God, who is always ready to showre down his mercies upon a penitent heart; the pope answered with the same weakness of speech, Certe. After her abdication the queen came to reside in Rome, where she was confirmed in her baptism by the Pope, in whom she found a generous friend and benefactor, on Christmas Day, 1655. Flavio (1631-1693) was created cardinal by his uncle on 9 April, 1657. William Roberts, he prefaced this with the bull Speculatores Domus Israel, stating his reasons: "in order that the whole history of each case may be known." In the conclave of 1655, famous for its duration of eighty days, and for the clash of national and factional interests, Cardinal Chigi was unanimously elected Pope. Alexander forbade his relatives to come to Rome. In 1627 he was appointed by Urban VIII Vice-Legate of Ferrara, and he served five years under the Cardinals Sacchetti and Pallotta, whose commendations won for him the important post of Inquisitor of Malta, together with the episcopal consecration. In foreign policy his instincts were not as humanist or as successful. There, he supported Urban VIII's condemnation of the heretical book Augustinus by Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, in the papal Bull In eminenti of 1642.[10]. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. … Houses were levelled to make way for straighter streets and broad piazzas, the Collegio Romano. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Lorenzo Grottanelli, "La regina Cristina di Svezia in Roma", Oliva Muratore, "Formello, Villa Versaglia,". He was later transferred in 1652, and he became bishop of Imola. A contemporary, John Bargrave (having visited Rome during the period following his election and then later during his papacy) wrote the following:[18]. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). According to Rev. The endeavours of the Chigi to enrich their family were too indulgently regarded by the Pope; but, ever pious and devout, he was far from having a share in the excesses of his luxury-loving nephews. The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. The various urban and architectural projects carried out during Alexander's reign were recorded in engravings by Giovanni Battista Falda and the first volume was published in 1665. Alexander was interested in architecture and supported various urban projects in Rome. MLA citation. The French prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, had not forgiven the legate who resolutely opposed him at the conferences of Munster and Osnabrück, or the papal secretary of state who stood in the way of his anti-Roman policy. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Gerard Haffner. For a year the hopes of Christendom seemed to be realized. Updates? Ecclesiastical approbation. Alexander VII confirmed that they were too, by the bull Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem (16 October 1656) declaring that five propositions extracted by a group of theologians from the Sorbonne out of Jansen's work, mostly concerning grace and the fallen nature of man, were heretical, including the proposition according to which to say "that Christ died, or shed His blood for all men" would be a semipelagian error. [17], The conclave believed he was strongly opposed to the nepotism that had been a feature of previous popes. Unable to attend school, he was taught first by his mother, and later by able tutors, and displayed remarkable precocity and love of reading. 'For this purpose,' the Pontiff stated, 'we have caused the Tridentine and Clementine Indices to be added to this general Index, and also all the relevant decrees up to the present time, that have been issued since the Index of our predecessor Clement, that nothing profitable to the faithful interested in such matters might seem omitted. Alexander VII's Apostolic Constitution, Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum (8 December 1661),[41] laid out the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in terms almost identical to those utilized by Pope Pius IX when he issued his infallible definition Ineffabilis Deus. He published his Index Librorum Prohibitorum Alexandri VII Pontificis Maximi jussu editus which presented anew the contents of the Index of Forbidden Books which had condemned the works of Copernicus and Galileo. He was also a patron of learning, modernized the Roman University, known as Sapienza, and enriched it with a magnificent library. But his disease increasing, four days after, he was assaulted by a grievous fit, from which he concluded that his sickness was mortal, and not withstanding, it grew more and more violent daily, yet for all this, he had thoughts of performing the long ceremonies of Holy Thursday, to prepare himself for death, as he said, by meditating on the sacred mysteries of the passion o Jesus Christ, and would have executed his intentions in despight of his pains, if his physicians and chyrurgeons, together with his confessor had not perswaded him to the contrary; remonstrating to him the inconveniencies which might arise, from the hard labours which are inseparable from such prolixe ceremonies.