North America Northern and Central America Britain. Salafranca Ortega, Jesús F. El sistema colonial español en África. By the 1960s, in response to anti-Spanish mobilization in the area, the regime provided Guinea with limited autonomy; in 1968, it granted it full independence. Lower Canada. [5] Martín del Molino, “Datos etnográficos de los bubis en el siglo XVIII,” Guinea Española 60.1565 (1963): 38. This may not exactly be the 1492 nursery rhyme you grew up with, but it's a history that has impacted us all. To unlock this lesson you must be a Member. What Is the International Reading Association? There are still Spanish speaking African people in Equatorial Guinea. Log in here for access. It was the discovery of oil deposits that would fuel a new wave of development under Equatorial Guinea’s second president, and the world’s longest serving head of state—Teodoro Obiang Nguema. [27], Oil wealth came with new forms of inequality and exploitation. [3], At first, the Portuguese and then the Spanish focused primarily on the island of Fernando Po (which was named after the first Portuguese explorer to reach it), later to be known as Bioko. In 1979 Mauritania renouced to his territories in Sahara but Morocco didn't. Barcelona: Bellaterra, 2010. Moreover, the Spanish merchant marine, a necessary institution to any expansionist effort in West Africa, declined throughout the 1870s as well. [24] Sundiata, From Slaving to Neoslavery, 173. Martin-Márquez, Susan. During the Cuban War of Independence (1868-1898), the island was turned into a presidio (a mixture of military barracks and prison) with close to 600 political deportees reaching Fernando Po from the Caribbean. Slavers, explorers, scientists, and political figures portrayed the island as a pit of diseases that no outsider would be able to withstand. This situation The 800-year religious conflict in Spain ended in 1492. Indeed, until recently, references to Equatorial Guinea and Spain’s connections to Africa more generally have been relatively scant, altogether absent, or downright problematic in public memorials, history textbooks, or public culture in Iberia. In response, the British embargoed labor migration from its West African possessions to Fernando Po. In 1778, the Spanish Crown took possession over Fernando Po from the Portuguese with the aim of developing an aggressive presence in the West African slave trading networks. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal It started in 1492 when monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand financed the voyage of Christopher Columbus, resulting in Spanish contact with the Americas. LGBTI Minorities and Queer Politics in Eastern and Souther... Maasai and Maa-Speaking Peoples of East Africa, The, Modern African Literature in European Languages, Northeastern African States, c. 1000 BCE-1800 CE, Political Science and the Study of Africa, Postcolonial Sub-Saharan African Politics, Religion and Politics in Contemporary Africa, Social and Cultural Anthropology and the Study of Africa, States of the Zimbabwe Plateau and Zambezi Valley, Swahili City-States of the East African Coast. The result would be the world's first global empire, stretching across the Americas, Europe, and parts of Asia. In fourteen-hundred and ninety-two, do you know what happened? It was formed in 1946 by joining the southern zone of the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, the colony of Ifni and the colony of Spanish Sahara into a single administrative unit. A European nation without colonies was not treated as a serious power, and even risked being invaded itself. Revelations of laboring conditions akin to slavery on the Cadbury plantations in São Tomé and in Príncipe drove a consumer boycott in Europe. Even though the Inca armies wouldn't be fully subdued until 1572, this signaled Spain's entrance into South America. Carrasco González, Antonio M. La novela colonial hispanoafricana: Las colonias africanas de España a través de la historia de la novela. As late as the 1890s, the colonial governors could not force the indigenous leadership to support a steady labor draft. Indeed, the authority of the indigenous leadership declined steadily throughout the nineteenth century. [13] AGA 81/6946: “Informe dado por la comisión creada por Real Ordén de 29 de setiembre de 1881 para proponer los medios para fundar en Fernando Póo una colonia penitenciaria. St. St. Augustine in Florida was established as a Spanish fort in 1565, the first permanent settlement in … Definition and Examples, What Is Imperialism? Her second book project focuses on reverse Atlantic networks after the end of the contraband slave trade to the Americas, with particular attention to Spanish colonialism in West Africa.