This did not, however, have any immediate effect upon German relations with other European powers. In 1939, German industries utilized 2.62 million women. During the war, Soviet production efforts were augmented through lend-lease aid. Geoffrey Roberts. Shortly before midnight, Molotov presented Lithuania with a ten-hour ultimatum, demanding the replacement of the Lithuanian government with a pro-Soviet one and free access for additional Soviet troops, threatening the country with immediate occupation otherwise. [10], Initially, the Soviet leadership hoped for a successful socialist revolution in Germany as part of the "world revolution". [141][142] Germany never responded the counterproposal. [47][48] However, the Soviet turn towards the French Third Republic in 1932, discussed above, could also have been a part of the policy change. In September 1929, discontented with the reintroduction of coercive grain requisitions and collectivization of agriculture, several thousand Soviet peasants of German descent (mostly Mennonites) convened in Moscow, demanding exit visas to emigrate to Canada, provoking a significant political scandal in Germany, which soured Soviet-German relations. They fought on opposite sides during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748), but the war saw both grow in power. The end goal was to obtain a German victory through the utilization of the minimum quantities of men, materials and supplies as possible, and in the shortest time.

[12], Germany was somewhat worried about Russia's potential industrialization—it had far more potential soldiers—while Russia feared Germany's already established industrial power. 1. On January 26, 1934, Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with Poland. [149] Stalin did not know that Hitler had been secretly discussing an invasion of the Soviet Union since the summer of 1940,[150] and that Hitler had ordered his military in late 1940 to prepare for war in the east regardless of the parties' talks of a potential Soviet entry as a fourth Axis Power.[151]. April 17, 1939, Пронин А.А., Советско-германские соглашения 1939 г. Истоки и последствия//Международный исторический журнал, №№ 10–12, 2000, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Dates when relations established with Soviet Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germany–Soviet_Union_relations,_1918–1941&oldid=980143047, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2008, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Everett, Rob. But Allied lend-lease aid did make a difference, even if only a small one, to the Soviet war effort, as can be seen in the below paragraphs.

22.000 tons of steel provided by U.S. Steel. The Soviet Union sent military and political advisors, and sold munitions in support of the "Loyalist," or Republican, side. The Soviet Union had been discontented with the Baltic states leaning toward Britain and France, the so-called Baltic Entente dating back to 1934, which could potentially be reoriented toward Germany, and considered it a violation of the mutual-assistance treaties of the autumn of 1939. The raw statistics of the war are nothing short of stunning. [14] This was yet another event at the start of military cooperation between the two countries, which ended before the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. While this does not seem like a significant amount, having 10% more key supplies available could make the difference between holding the line to going on the offensive. The Comintern helped Communist parties around the world send volunteers to the International Brigades that fought for the Loyalists.[19].

[122] In the first year, Germany received one million tons of cereals, half a million tons of wheat, 900,000 tons of oil, 100,000 tons of cotton, 500,000 tons of phosphates and considerable amounts of other vital raw materials, along with the transit of one million tons of soybeans from Manchuria. The German military transportation system still relied on horses in May of 1945. The Soviet Union had built up a much more effective and reliable economic infrastructure since the 1920’s when compared to the German economy. Dec 15, 2014 #1 The US in no way supports Russia during WW2, but otherwise, things happen normally. Its manifest read as follows: 46 merchantmen (all 8-10K ton ships); built by McCormack Ship Yards; Soviet flagged (to avoid being torpedoed by the Japanese who could attack U.S. flagged vessels but who could not attack Soviet flagged ones) and Soviet crewed. The German economy of the 1930’s continued to satisfy both civilian and military requirements, even after September of 1939 when production should have shifted to military needs. D. C. Watt, 'The Initiation of the Negotiations Leading to the Nazi-Soviet Pact: A Historical Problem', in C. Abramsky, ed.. Кривицкий, Вальтер (1938). The RAF also provided aerial support to protect Murmansk from the Luftwaffe. The question of whether the interests of both parties make desirable the maintenance of an independent Polish state and how such a state should be bounded can only be definitely determined in the course of further political developments. After 1943, when the Allies developed better transportation networks in Iran and the Middle East in general, the Persian route became a more critical link. The Merekalov-Weizsacker Meeting of 17 April 1939". [citation needed], Relying on the foreign affairs doctrine pursued by the Soviet leadership in the 1920s, in his report of the Central Committee to the Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (b) on June 27, 1930, Joseph Stalin welcomed the international destabilization and rise of political extremism among the capitalist powers.