Vatican City is currently the only widely recognized independent state that has not become a member of the United Nations. Vatican City, officially Vatican City State, is a landlocked sovereign city-state (walled enclave) within the Italian city of Rome. St. Peter's Basilica, whose successive architects include Bramante, Michelangelo, Giacomo della Porta, Maderno and Bernini, is a renowned work of Renaissance architecture. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. [62], Vatican City State, created in 1929 by the Lateran Pacts, provides the Holy See with a temporal jurisdiction and independence within a small territory. Artists who decorated the interiors of the Vatican include Raphael and Fra Angelico. Civil defence is the responsibility of the Corps of Firefighters of the Vatican City State, the national fire brigade. On 1 August, the state started to release its own postal stamps, under the authority of the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State. Nevertheless, the pope has absolute power in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches over Vatican City. Broadband service is widely provided within Vatican City. The size of Vatican City is thus unrelated to the large global reach exercised by the Holy See as an entity quite distinct from the state. Foreign embassies to the Holy See are located in the city of Rome; only during the Second World War were the staff of some embassies accredited to the Holy See given what hospitality was possible within the narrow confines of Vatican City—embassies such as that of the United Kingdom while Rome was held by the Axis Powers and Germany's when the Allies controlled Rome. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum located in the general area the Romans called Ager Vaticanus, "Vatican territory".[19]. On its official website, Vatican City uses Italian, English, French, German, and Spanish, while the official website of the Holy See adds Latin, Portuguese and even Chinese. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The Vatican City State is also one of few countries in the world that does not provide any publicly available financial data to the IMF.[81]. From 1309 to 1377, they lived at Avignon in France. [58] He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum), and a garden (viridarium).[58]. The entire city covers just over 100 acres, equalling to about 0.44 square kilometres. [57] In 1279, Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277–1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace and enclosed this area with walls. [3][15] The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. As a state that is 1.05 kilometres (0.65 miles) long and 0.85 kilometres (0.53 miles) wide,[101] it has a small transportation system with no airports or highways. However, the Holy See did not escape the financial difficulties experienced by other European countries; in 2012, it started a spending review to determine where to cut costs to reverse its 2011 budget deficit of $20 million. However, the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority, beyond its walled boundary, over 23 sites in Rome and five outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castle Gandolfo. [71], However, Vatican City State itself participates in some international organizations whose functions relate to the state as a geographical entity, distinct from the non-territorial legal persona of the Holy See. [k] The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome. The pontiff also ordered that the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See would be the Vatican's central bank, with responsibilities similar to other central banks around the world.[88]. [98] Furthermore, it is the only site to date registered with the UNESCO as a centre containing monuments in the "International Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection" according to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. This ranks it 235th in the world. ", "Vatican financial system restructuring begins with new secretariat", "Law on citizenship, residence and access", "Vatican City drinks more wine per person than anywhere else in the world", "Behind The Walls: What It's Like To Live Inside The Vatican, For A Woman", "QI: some quite interesting facts about Popes", "Vatican City – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "The Vatican Museums & St Peter's, Rome; getting there -", On call 24/7: Vatican phone system directs thousands of call each day, "Hail Marys Not Needed: Vatican Mail Will Deliver", "Vatican City State set to end sale of single-use plastics", "Vatican surpasses all nations... in pickpockets? How Does Vatican City Deal With Criminals? This followed the charging of two senior clerics including a monsignor with money laundering offences. [41] Pius XII created 32 cardinals in early 1946, having announced his intentions to do so in his preceding Christmas message. Because of space limitations, Vatican City is one of the few countries in the world that is unable to host embassies. [17] The independent state of Vatican City, on the other hand, came into existence on 11 February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation,[18] not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870), which had previously encompassed much of central Italy. There is free public access to Saint Peter's Square and Basilica and, on the occasion of papal general audiences, to the hall in which they are held. Acting with three other cardinals chosen by lot every three days, one from each order of cardinals (cardinal bishop, cardinal priest, and cardinal deacon), he in a sense performs during that period the functions of head of state of Vatican City. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from close to the Tiber to St. Peter's. The Pope is ex officio head of state[64] of Vatican City since the 1860s, functions dependent on his primordial function as bishop of the diocese of Rome. Dating its origins to the early nineteenth century, the Corps in its present form was established in 1941. Vatican City obtained its independence on 11 February 1929, when the three treaties were signed. The Vatican City welcomes all visitors with open arms, you don’t have to be Catholic to attend any of the Pope’s services either. Whilst it receives over 5 million visitors a year, not everyone who wanders its streets is a tourist. He is the only absolute monarch in Europe. Forced to give up secular power, the popes focused on spiritual issues. It is distinct from the Holy See. The state chief position in the Holy See is Pope Francis. 0 +. [113][114], Vatican City has no prison system, apart from a few detention cells for pre-trial detention. It is in this territory that St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. [94] For example, as most of the roles which would confer citizenship are reserved for men, the gender ratio of the citizenship is several men per woman. So, all of the citizens and places of worship are Catholic. When the citizen of Vatican City loses its citizenship, it becomes an Italian citizen if they don’t possess other citizenship. The gardens, established during the Renaissance and Baroque era, are decorated with fountains and sculptures. Television services are provided through another entity, the Vatican Television Center.[108]. Although the Holy See (which is distinct from the Vatican City) and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City uses Italian. Even though is not part of the European Union, Vatican City has used the euro as its currency since 1 January 1999, based on a special agreement with the European Union. So, the citizenship is granted jus office, namely on the grounds of appointment to work in the service of the Holy See. The Vatican City has no diplomatic service and no embassies on its territory. The state's foreign relations are entrusted to the Holy See's Secretariat of State and diplomatic service. As of 2020 it has a population of 801 people, according to the latest estimates from the UN’s World Population Prospect’s. The Cardinal Camerlengo presides over the Apostolic Camera to which is entrusted the administration of the property and protection of other papal temporal powers and rights of the Holy See during the period of the empty throne or sede vacante (papal vacancy). [107] Its main transmission antennae are located in Italian territory, and exceed Italian environmental protection levels of emission. In 2010, there was an investigation into the Vatican Bank over violations of money-laundering rules which made the Vatican become more transparent and meet international demands for more financial transparency. The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state named after Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. The Holy See itself has existed continuously as a juridical entity since Roman Imperial times and has been internationally recognized as a powerful and independent sovereign entity since Late Antiquity to the present, without interruption even at times when it was deprived of territory (e.g. Cardinals who live in Vatican City or Rome, as well as diplomats of the Holy See, are also considered citizens. At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Vatican City State, which employs nearly 2,000 people, had a surplus of 6.7 million euros in 2007 but ran a deficit in 2008 of over 15 million euros. Some citizens don’t even live within the city’s walls as they are diplomatic officials, who spend all their time in other countries. [98], Michelangelo's Pietà, in the Basilica, is one of the Vatican's best known artworks, Michelangelo's frescos on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, "an artistic vision without precedent"[99], The elaborately decorated Sistine Hall in the Vatican Library, There is a football championship, called the Vatican City Championship, with eight teams, including, for example, the Swiss Guard's FC Guardia and police and museum guard teams. The Palatine Guard and the Noble Guard, the last armed forces of the Vatican City State, were disbanded by Pope Paul VI in 1970. The politics of Vatican City takes place in an absolute elective monarchy, in which the head of the Catholic Church takes power. Facts and statistics about the Population of Holy See (Vatican City).