Both lines of popes refused to submit. The Council of Constance (1414–1418) ended the schism when they elected Martin V as the new pope. The schism in the Western Roman Church resulted from the return of the papacy to Rome by Gregory XI on January 17, 1377. In the intense partisanship characteristic of the Middle Ages, the schism engendered a fanatical hatred noted by Johan Huizinga:[14] when the town of Bruges went over to the "obedience" of Avignon, a great number of people left to follow their trade in a city of Urbanist allegiance; in the 1382 Battle of Roosebeke, the oriflamme, which might only be unfurled in a holy cause, was taken up against the Flemings, because they were Urbanists and thus viewed by the French as schismatics. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [citation needed] Eventually theologians like Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, as well as canon lawyers like Francesco Zabarella, adopted arguments that equity permitted the Church to act for its own welfare in defiance of the letter of the law. Urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious, reformist, and prone to violent outbursts of temper. [7] Many of the cardinals who had elected him soon regretted their decision: the majority removed themselves from Rome to Anagni, where, even though Urban was still reigning, they elected Robert of Geneva as a rival pope on September 20 of the same year, claiming that the election of Urban was invalid because it had been done for fear of the rioting Roman crowds. Scisma d'Occidente - Western Schism. Efforts were made to end the Schism through force or diplomacy. Catholic Encyclopedia. To this day the Church has never made any official, authoritative pronouncement about the papal lines of succession for this confusing period; nor has Martin V or any of his successors. Unity was finally restored without a definitive solution to the question; for the Council of Constance succeeded in terminating the Western Schism, not by declaring which of the three claimants was the rightful one, but by eliminating all of them by forcing their abdication or deposition, and then setting up a novel arrangement for choosing a new pope acceptable to all sides. The Pisan popes Alexander V and John XXIII are now considered to be antipopes. They intended to use intimidation and violence (impressio et metus) as their weapons. The Council elected Pope Martin V in 1417, essentially ending the schism. et les origines du Grand Schisme d'Occident," in: This page was last edited on 14 September 2020, at 22:16. Historical map of the Western Schism Caution, this map may contain errors, e.g. 1987. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Although Roman Catholic church historians generally agree that Urban VI and his successors were the legitimate popes, there has never been an official pronouncement to this effect. [16] However, the Western Schism was reinterpreted when Pope John XXIII (1958–1963) chose to reuse the ordinal XXIII, citing "twenty-two Johns of indisputable legitimacy. [19] For years, the so-called conciliarists have challenged the authority of the pope and they became more relevant after a convened council also known as the Council of Florence (1439–1445) became instrumental in achieving ecclesial union between the Catholic Church and the churches of the East.[20]. By its end, three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. "Western Schism" . This reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence, and to the papal curia's efforts to extend its powers of patronage and increase its revenues. [citation needed], Pope Gregory XI announced his intention to return to Avignon, just after the Easter celebrations of 1378. Mappa che mostra il supporto per Avignone (rosso) e Roma (blu) durante la Scisma d'Occidente; questa ripartizione è preciso fino a quando il Consiglio di Pisa (1409), che ha creato una terza linea degli aventi diritto. Clement VII, detail from a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo; in the National Museum and Galleries of Capodimonte, Naples. The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378 (Latin: Magnum schisma occidentale, Ecclesiae occidentalis schisma), was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417[1] in which two men (by 1410 three) simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated the other. It is the intention of this conference to bring together academics working on different religious communities in Rome, to increase dialogue and exchange, in order to help better understand the effects of the Schism in the city. Thus the Borgia pope Alexander VI took his regnal name in sequence after the Pisan anti-pope Alexander V. In 1942, the Annuario listed the last three popes of the schism as Gregory XII (1406–1409), Alexander V (1409–1410), and John XXIII (1410–1415). The French crown even tried to coerce Benedict XIII, whom it supported, into resigning. the borders in Scandinavia and Prussia are incorrect. (The crisis was resolved in 1415–18 at the Council of Constance, which elected a new pope and restored papal authority over the city of Rome and the Papal States.) This new reform movement held that a general council is superior to the pope on the strength of its capability to settle things even in the early church such as the case in 681 when Pope Honorius was condemned by a council called Constantinople III.